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REPLICATION A grating-ruling engine normally rules from 50 to 75 gratings a year. It would require many engines to rule the thousands of gratings needed each year if original gratings were used. It is evident that the output of one good engine can be multiplied many times if a replica process is available that can make copies that are fully the equal of the master gratings from which they are made. 2. DIFFRACTION 33 GRATINGS 1. Reflectance Gratings Wood ' succeeded in making useful echelette-type replicas by forming collodion films on master gratings ruled in copper plates.
Alternatively, a single transmitting slit can serve as the reference index, and photoelectric observation can take the place of the eye. The light intensity will vary sinusoidally if only the zero and first diffraction orders are observed by the imaging optical system. Two or more measuring slots set to look at different parts of the sine wave are frequently used to obtain a direction-sensitive signal and to help subdivide the grating groove separation accurately. There are obvious advantages to using a multiple slit for observing the moving grating.
The burnished grooves of ruled gratings can concentrate much of the light in one spectrum order; for this reason primarily, ruling engines are a continuing field of development. 61 62 63 64 65 Since this chapter was written, a lengthy and very complete discussion of the theory of gratings, their methods of manufacture, and their appli cations has been published by Stroke. The reader is referred to this article for further information on this subject. 66 C. F. Oster and D. C. Skillman, Determination and control of electron microscope magnification.