Antimicrobial food additives : characteristics, uses, by Erich Lück; Martin Jager. Transl. from the German by S. F.

By Erich Lück; Martin Jager. Transl. from the German by S. F. Laichena

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For example, foods may be more desirable either crispy or dry. Freezing and drying are common food preservation processes that are used to extend the shelf life of foods because they render water unavailable for pathogenic or spoilage bacteria. If the water in foods is frozen quickly, there is less damage to the food at the cellular level. Preservatives may be added to a formulation to prevent mold or yeast growth. Humectants, which have an affinity for water, are added to retain moisture in foods.

An objective test measures one particular attribute of a food rather than the overall quality of the product. Therefore, it is important to choose an objective test for food quality that measures a key attribute of the product being tested. For example, orange juice is both acidic and sweet; thus, suitable objective tests for this product would be measurement of pH and measurement of sugar content. These tests would be of no value in determining the quality of a chocolate chip cookie. A suitable test for cookie quality might include moisture content or the force required to break the cookie.

Coffee is an example of a food product that is freeze-dried. The process is expensive and is only used for foods that can be sold at a high price, such as coffee. The coffee beans are frozen and then subjected to a high vacuum, after which radiant heat is applied until almost all of water is removed by sublimation. Freezer burn is also the result of sublimation. Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point Vapor Pressure If a puddle of water is left on the ground for a day or two, it will dry up because the liquid evaporates.

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