Advanced Thermal Design of Electronic Equipment by Ralph Remsburg

By Ralph Remsburg

The box of digital packaging maintains to develop at an awesome fee. to achieve success during this box calls for analytical abilities, a beginning in mechanical engineering, and entry to the most recent advancements within the electronics box. The emphasis for every undertaking that the digital packaging engineer faces alterations from venture to venture, and from corporation to corporation, but a few constants should still proceed into the foreseeable destiny. this sort of is the emphasis on ther­ mal layout. even though quite a few years in the past thermal research of digital gear was once an afterthought, it's changing into one of many basic elements of many packaging jobs. apparently the times of simply including a much bigger fan to minimize the overheat­ ing challenge are nearly over. changing that idea is the up-front dedication to CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software program code, FEA (Finite aspect research) software program, and the conclusion that the matter will simply worsen. because the digital circuit measurement is diminished, velocity is elevated. because the energy of those structures raises and the quantity allowed diminishes, warmth flux or density (heat consistent with unit region, W/m 2 or Btulh ft2) has spiraled. a lot of the development within the reliability and packaging density of digital circuits could be traced to advances in thermal layout. whereas air cooling continues to be used greatly, complicated warmth move strategies utilizing unique man made drinks have gotten extra well-known, permitting nonetheless smaller platforms to be synthetic. The appli­ cation of complex thermal administration suggestions calls for a history in fluid dynamics.

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S Detail of the FLOTHERM® results showing air flow in and around the processor heat sink. In this view, the air flow appears to be effectively cooling the microprocessor. ) FLOTHERM® is a registered trademark of Flomerics, Ltd. 6 Detail of the FLOTHERM® results showing air flow along the centerline of the microprocessor. The air flow from the lower portion of the fan is blocked by the processor package height. ) FLOTHERM® is a registered trademark of Flomerics, Ltd. Back~owthrough the center of the heats nk!!

4 Steady-State Conduction For problems involving heat transfer by steady-state thermal conduction the general heat conduction equat ion: a a a ax ai az 2 2 2 T T T q . 27) can be simplified by assuming steady state , where aT/ at = 0. Since T varies only with x, and the heat flow is one-dimensional, then aT/ ay = 0, and aT/ az = 0. 1 Conduction in Simple Geometries In this sectienn we will calculate the equations for simple shapes such as a plane wall, a cylinder, and a sphere. 4 Steady-State Conduction 33 dimensional, that is, we require only a single coordinate to describe the spatial variation of the dependent variables.

FIDAP has similar capabilities to PHOENICS, but cannot currently accept problems with two-phase flows. FIDAP is distributed by Fluid Dynamics International, Evanston, IL. FLOTHERM FLOTHERM contain s a full three-dimensional solver for Navier-Stokes equations, built-in boundary conditions for common objects such as fans, vents, and filters, and an effective turbulent viscosity solver that accounts for the additional friction and heat transfer due to turbulence. This package is designed specifically for electronics cooling problems, and Flomerics claims an 80% market penetration.

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