By Kurt E. Geckeler, Hiroyuki Nishide
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Extra info for Advanced Nanomaterials, Two Volume Edition
Chain termination or chain transfer) during growth of the polymer chain. In other words, a living polymer is a macromolecular species that will continue to grow as long as the monomer supply is replenished. The reactive chain end is then quenched to terminate further growth of the polymer during precipitation and puriﬁcation. A precise control of molecular weight is possible through living polymerization strategies. 1, which means that that there is less than 30% standard deviation in the degree of polymerization of each of the chains.
5 Micelle Formation If the BCP is dissolved in a dilute solution with a solvent that dissolves only one of the blocks, the BCP will act as a surfactant molecule and micelle formation will occur. These materials are referred to as “amphiphilic” due to their dual polar/ nonpolar chemical nature, and can thus dissolve partially in polar or nonpolar media. 6. These micelles form structures with a deﬁned size and shape, depending on the relative molecular weight of the blocks and the ionic strength of the solution.
11b); this alleviated the stress in the material and in turn reduced the pattern defects . Several successful applications of PS-b-PMMA as a nanolithographic template have already been achieved, with C. T. 2 Block Copolymers as Lithographic Materials the ﬁrst to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of this technology. 11 (a) A top-down SEM image of angled lamellae in a ternary PS-b-PMMA/PS/ PMMA blend. The chemical surface pattern is fabricated with a 70 nm line spacing to match the natural period of the copolymer; (b) Theoretical concentration map of the distribution of the homopolymers on the surface.