By Sandra A Thompson; Charles N Li; Joseph Sung-Yul Park
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Extra resources for A reference grammar of Wappo
4 It is used to show that two third-person referents are the same when the first of them is the subject. It can be found in simplex sentences with non-body-part genitives as well as in complex sentences with dependent, but not coordinate, clauses. A. Non-body-part genitives As an example of 3CO in simplex sentences with non-body-part genitives, consider (90): (90) cephi me - meʔ papel' peh - khiʔ 3SG:NOM 3CO - GEN book look - STAT ‘s/hei is looking at his/heri own book’ (j51) Example (90) contrasts with (91), where the referents are co-referential, but are first person instead of third person, and the second occurrence of the co-referential pronoun is the reflexive: (91) ah may' - meʔ papel' 1SG:NOM REFL - GEN book ‘I am looking at my own book’ (o) peh - khiʔ look - STAT Example (90) also contrasts with (92), where the third-person referents are not coreferential; here the appropriate personal pronoun is used instead of 3CO: (92) ah te - meʔ papel' peh - khiʔ 1SG:NOM 3SG - GEN book look - STAT ‘I am looking at his/her book’ (o) Finally, note that example (90) also contrasts with (93), where there are two thirdperson referents, but the non-initial one is not a possessor.
3, we will present the verb classes and the effect they have on the forms of the inflectional morphemes. 1 Habitual/progressive [= DUR] What we are glossing DUR (for ‘durative’) in this grammar is the inflectional category expressing habitual or progressive actions. 1). Because both DUR and STAT can express what Comrie (1976) identifies as present, we do not use this label. Here are examples illustrating the use of the DUR suffix: A. 1 Tense and Aspect (2) ʔiʔi, cephi luče 33 poʔ - miʔ yes 3SG:NOM cig.
Cephi k'u:wi: - yaʔ 3SG:NOM run - DUR ‘s/he’s running’ (o) 38 The Verb Phrase b. cephi k'uwey - khiʔ 3SG:NOM run - STAT ‘s/he arrived (somewhere) by running’ (369) (35) a. c'ic'a - t - i ho - yok'a: - laʔ bird - PL - NOM DIR - fly - DUR ‘the birds are flying around’ (369) b. sumi cic'a - t - i ho - yok'el - khiʔ yesterday bird - PL - NOM DIR - fly - STAT ‘yesterday the birds were flying around [but have now roosted]’ (13, 369) (36) a. cephi ew mehlah - šiʔ 3SG:NOM fish catch - DUR ‘s/he’s fishing’ (370) b.