By Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour
A definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views
Read Online or Download A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades PDF
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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades
In the 1980s, many American and Canadian politicians voiced support for workfare provisions and began to devolve signiﬁcant social responsibilities to the states, provinces and localities. As Lemon (1993, p. 276) argues, the ‘less centralised’ Canadian federal system limited the wholesale dismantling of the Canadian social welfare system; urban voters continue to dominate many provinces and can articulate demands through less fragmented local and metropolitan governments. But in the USA, the devolution of welfare responsibilities seems to ﬁt the ‘hollowing out’ metaphor.
Industrial Belfast immediately comes to mind as an afﬂicted city, but so too is sunny, white-collar Los Angeles. The new social strife can be traced to the de-industrialising impacts and migratory effects of globalisation. Both Belfast and Los Angeles exemplify how old and new urban centres can be struck. The distress is simultaneously drawn from the same source – capital moving out of urban centres in search of cheap labour and poor labourers moving into urban centres in search of capital-created jobs.
There are more than a few instances where whole neighbourhoods are ridden in abject poverty and where generation after generation subsists on public assistance. This picture is particularly true for the USA, but distressed urban neighbourhoods can be found in cities across Europe. Prosperous and distressed cities Since the 1960s, scholars have talked about the demise of central cities and the predictions continue (Fishman 1990; Garreau 1991). Central cities are seen as vestiges of an era when proximity was crucial and when limitations of transportation and communication placed a premium on highly concentrated space.