17 ecuaciones que cambiaron el mundo by Ian Stewart

By Ian Stewart

Las ecuaciones, esos conjuntos de números y símbolos separados por el signo igual, son el alma de las matemáticas, los angeles ciencia y l. a. tecnología. Sin ellas, nuestro mundo no existiría en su forma real: escondidas para muchos, han constituido una fuerza motriz en los angeles civilización humana durante miles de años, abriendo nuevas perspectivas en campos tan variados como las comunicaciones, los angeles tecnología espacial o l. a. física nuclear. Que así es, es algo que se encarga de demostrar, con su maestría ordinary, el distinguido matemático y reputado divulgador Ian Stewart. Para ello ha seleccionado 17 ecuaciones, pertenecientes a dos grupos diferentes. Uno es el de las ecuaciones que revelan regularidades matemáticas, como el teorema de Pitágoras, que nos cube cómo están relacionados los tres lados de un triángulo rectángulo, mientras que el otro es el de las ecuaciones que expresan leyes de l. a. naturaleza, como l. a. ley de gravitación common de Newton, las ecuaciones del electromagnetismo de Maxwell, los angeles ecuación de Schrödinger de l. a. mecánica cuántica, o los angeles ecuación desarrollada por Claude Shannon que outline cuánta información contiene un mensaje.
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In In Pursuit of the Unknown, celebrated mathematician Ian Stewart makes use of a handful of mathematical equations to discover the extremely important connections among math and human development. we frequently forget the ancient hyperlink among arithmetic and technological advances, says Stewart—but this connection is imperative to any whole figuring out of human history.
Equations are modeled at the styles we discover on the earth round us, says Stewart, and it truly is via equations that we can make feel of, and in flip effect, our global. Stewart locates the origins of every equation he presents—from Pythagoras’s Theorem to Newton’s legislation of Gravity to Einstein’s concept of Relativity—within a selected ancient second, elucidating the improvement of mathematical and philosophical suggestion important for every equation’s discovery. None of those equations emerged in a vacuum, Stewart exhibits; every one drew, in a roundabout way, on previous equations and the considering the day. In flip, all of those equations prepared the ground for significant advancements in arithmetic, technological know-how, philosophy, and know-how. with out logarithms (invented within the early seventeenth century via John Napier and more desirable via Henry Briggs), scientists do not need been in a position to calculate the circulation of the planets, and mathematicians do not have been capable of increase fractal geometry. The Wave Equation is likely one of the most vital equations in physics, and is essential for engineers learning the vibrations in automobiles and the reaction of constructions to earthquakes. And the equation on the middle of knowledge conception, devised through Claude Shannon, is the foundation of electronic verbal exchange today.
An approachable and informative consultant to the equations upon which almost each point of medical and mathematical figuring out relies, In Pursuit of the Unknown is additionally a reminder that equations have profoundly stimulated our pondering and proceed to make attainable some of the advances that we take without any consideration.

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Susan R. Suleiman, introduction to The Reader in the Text: Essays on Audience and Interpretation, ed. Susan R. Suleiman and Inge Crosman (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980), pp. 5, 27-29. 33. Frederick C. Crews, "Literature, the Art of Literary Criticism," Encyclopedia Brittanica, Macropedia, vol. 23, pp. 202-7. On Richards's view of literature and linguistic analysis as a source of salvation, see John Paul Russo, "I. A. Richards in Retrospect," Critical Inquiry 8 (1982): 743-60, especially pp.

Even more ideologically inspired, though, is much of the criticism of behaviorism from uninformed sources. Historians take for granted that the discovery of historical "truth" reflects a writer's "theory-laden" interests. The task of historians, as witnessed in this book, consists of bringing appropriate evidence to bear on their contentions. Consider, for example, the familiar icon of a pigeon pecking a key in a box. 2 Skinner's simple psychological recipechange behavior by stimulus control and schedules of reinforcementenabled others to purvey skillful experiments and therapies, behavior management and self-help into cultural reform on a broad scale.

New York: Harper, 1990); Henry Gleitman, Psychology, 3d ed. (New York: Norton, 1990). 29. " Atlantic Monthly 153 (January 1934): 50-57; reprinted in Cumulative Record, enl. ed. (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1961), pp. 261-71. On Frost's encouragement of Skinner's literary ambitions, see Skinner, Particulars, pp. 227-28, 248-51. 30. Skinner, "The Motivation of the Student," in The Technology of Teaching (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968), pp. 145-68, on pp. 146, 147. 31. Hans Robert Jauss, Aesthetic Experience and Literary Hermeneutics, trans.

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